History of Ancient Egypt and Mummification Rituals
buried in the floor of the tomb. At this point one's heart was weighed in the balance against the white feather of truth; if one's heart was lighter than the feather, one was justified, and if not, the heart was dropped to the floor where it was eaten by the monster Amut. The incision is sewn up, and then the body is placed in natron, covered entirely for 70 days, never longer. He was now ready for his journey to the Afterlife. T he Egyptians mummified animals as well as humans - everything from bulls and hawks to ichneumons and snakes. The poor could not afford new linens, and so wrapped their beloved corpses in those of yesterday (Bunson, 146). And the entire contents of the abdomen removed. Next, the flank is slit open. The mummy was placed in his coffin, or coffins, in the burial chamber and the entrance sealed.
As long as order was maintained, everything was highly dependable and life after death could be achieved provided certain conditions were met. The most important part of luncheon on the Grass by Manet the ceremony was called the "Opening of the Mouth". Following the mortuary rituals and the closing of the tomb, the soul was thought to wake in the body and feel disoriented. The following rituals and embalming methods described are those of the first, most elaborate option, which was performed for royalty and the specific rituals are those observed in the. The term "mummification" comes from the Arabic word mummiya, which mean bitumen, a pitch substance that was first used in the preservation process during the Late Period. (Ikram, 54, citing Herodotus) The third, and cheapest, method of embalming was simply to wash out the intestines and keep the body for seventy days in natron (Ikram, 54, citing Herodotus). In time, the phrase came to be applied to anyone who had died and was employed by the Kites of Nephthys (the professional female mourners at funerals). In life, the king was associated with the son of Osiris and Isis, Horus, but in death, with the Lord of the Dead, Osiris. The family was expected to provide for the continued existence of the departed by bringing them food and drink offerings and remembering their name. 2613 BCE) which then became the grand pyramids of the, old Kingdom (c. There were three methods of embalming/funerary ritual available: the most expensive and elaborate, a second, cheaper option which still allowed for much of the first, and a third which was even cheaper and afforded little of the attention to detail of the first. The human-headed Imsety looked after the liver; Hapy, a baboon, guarded the lungs; Duamutef, a jackal, protected the stomach; and Qebehsenuef, a falcon, cared for the intestines.
For example, the body had to be preserved through mummification and given a properly furnished tomb with everything needed for life in the afterworld.
Mummification, the preservation of the body, was described in the ancient, pyramid Texts.
Egyptian burial is the common term for the ancient Egyptian funerary rituals concerning death and the souls journey to the afterlife.
Eternity, according to the historian Bunson, was the common destination of each man, woman and child in Egypt (87) but not eternity as in an afterlife.
The methods of embalming, or treating the dead body, that the ancient Egyptians used is called mummification.
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